Data types in c | 4 Basic Datatypes of c programming

What are the basic datatypes in c programming?

4 basic data types in c they are int, float, double, char.

Each and every datatypes in c provides differnt size which is efficient to hold that data in variable.

Different set of operation can be carried on different Data types in c which can hold different data.

After reading this article you will have a brief knowledge on Data types in c.


Data types in c

Basic data types in c

  • int
  • float
  • double
  • char
  • void

Enumeration data type in c

  • enum

Derived data types or user defined data types

  • pointer
  • array
  • structure
  • union

Void data type

  • void

Basic data types in c

int datatype in c

In c int datatype can be used store integer variable.

‘ int ‘ is a keyword used to define a varibale which contains integer value.

example declaration of int : int value=10;

Now lets see the different variations of int type and their ranges.

TypeMemory (in Bytes)Range Format specifier
short int2-32768 to 32767%hd
unsigned short int2-32768 to 32767%hu
unsigned int40 to 4294,967295%u
int4-2147483648 to 2147483647%d
long int8-2147483648 to 2147483647%ld
unsigned long int80 to 4294967295%lu
long long int8-(2^63) to (2^63)-1%lld
unsigned long long int80 to 18446744073709551615%llu

float datatype in c

float data type in c is used to represent a variable which holds the decimal number of single precision.

‘ float ‘ is the keyword used to declare a float variable.

Example for float variable declaration in c : float pi=3.142 .

TypeMemory (in Bytes)RangeFormat specifier
float41.2E-38 to 3.4E+38%lf

double datatype in c

double data type in c is used to represent a variable which holds the decimal nomber of double precision.

‘double’ is the keyword used to declare a double variable.

TypeMemory (in bytes)RangeFormat specifier
double82.3E-308 to 1.7E+308%lf
long double16
3.4E-4932 to 1.1E+4932
%Lf

char datatype in c

char datatype in c is used to store a character.

In c each character has a unique asci code hence it is easy to convert from int to char and vice versa.

Char type is basic datatype of c.

‘char’ is the keyword used to declare a char type variable.

It takes one byte of memory space but range varies.

TypeMemory (in Bytes)RangeFormat specifies
char1
-128 to 127 or 0 to 255
%c
signed char10 to 255
unsigned char1-128 to 127
#include<stdio.h>
int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
	printf("\nC datatypes\nBasic Datatypes\n");	
	int number=10;//its integer type.
	float fine=3.156;//its float type.
	double pi=3.142;//its double type.
	char c='x';//its char type.
	//lets print their values.
	printf("Number : %d\nfine : %f\npi : %lf \nc : %c\n",number,fine,pi,c);
	return 0;
}
Basic data types in c

Enumeration data types in c

Enumeration datatype in c is used to hold the integral contants.

‘enum’ is th ekeyword used to declare an enum.

example declaration: enum word{"hello","world" }

#include<stdio.h>
int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
	printf("\nC  datatypes\nDerived Datatypes\n");	
	enum week {Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday};//enum of week days
    enum week today;
    today = Saturday;
    printf("Day %d\n",today+1);
    return 0;
}
Enumeration data types in c

What are derived data types or user defined data types?

User defined datatypes are datatypes which are derived from basic data types. We can create our own data types using basic data types.

pointers in c

pointer variable holds/stores the address of another variable. You can declare a pointer by using * operator.

Ex: int *pointer;

In above example we are declaring a pointer which points to int type variable. Initially the poiter is null. You cal simply assign the address using & operator like below.

int *pointer
int number=10;
pointer=&number;

array in c

Arrays are continuous elements stored in continuous memory blocks.

Use [ size ] to declare an array.

Example: int array[10];

structure in c

This is a user defined data-type. By using structure programmer can easily group different other data type variables.

It stores element in different memory location for each of its members.

Dot ( . ) operator is used to access a structure variable.

Arrow operator is used to access structure variable via pointer.

struct‘ is the keyword used to declare a structure.

Example:

struct my_struct 
{
 int data;
 char c;
}

union in c

Union is a special user defined datatype. It is same as structure but stores element in same memory location.

union‘ is the keyword to define a union.

Example:

union example
{
 int t;
 char c;
}
#include<stdio.h>
int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
	printf("\nC  datatypes\nDerived Datatypes\n");	
	struct example_struct//this is structure
	{
		int num;
	};
	struct example_struct e;
	e.num=10;
	union example_union//this is union
	{
		int data;
		float pi;
	};
	union example_union un;
	un.pi=3.142;
	int array[2]={1,2};//this is array
	int  num=0;//this is int variable
	int *ptr=&num;//pointer pointing to num
	printf( " Struct variable: %d\nUnion Example: %f \nArray elements : %d %d\nPointer value %d\n",e.num,un.pi,array[0],array[1],*(ptr) );

	
	return 0;
}
Derived data types in c

void datatype in c

void in c is an empty data-type which has no value.

void is mainly used in return value of a function and in pointers.

#include <stdio.h>
void example()
{
	printf("Void Datatype Example\n");
}
int main(int argc, char const *argv[])
{
	printf("\nDatatype in c\n");
	example();
	return 0;
}
void datatype in c

People also ask

How to use character in c language

Declare a variable of character datatype. You can assign a character or you can take input from stdin. Then you can perform various operations on that character.
Example: char c='c';

What is %d in C called?

%d is a format specifier for int data type in c programming.

What are the user defined data types in C?

User defined datatypes are created using basic datatypes in other words user dedfined datatypes are derived from basic data types.

What are the 4 data types?

4 Basic datatypes are int ,float, double, char

Is enum a user defined data type?

Enum is a user defined datatype. It is considered as enumeration dataype.

Is array a user defined data type?

Yes aray is user defined datatype. It can be of any basic datatypes.

What is the real data type?

Real datatype is a datatype used to represent real numbers. But c doesnt have real keyword to represent a real number.

which datatype has more precision?

Double datatype has more precision in c programming language.


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